A Better World - Volume 8

A Better World VOL UM E 8 Actions and Commitments in support of the Sustainable Development Goals Climate Action

A Better W rld Actions and commitments in support of the Sustainable Development Goals VOLUM E 8 Climate Action

DISCLAIMER The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Human Development Forum concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by Human Development Forum in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the publisher. ISBN 978-1-9160325-3-8 Original title: A Better World Volume 8 Text © Human Development Forum. All rights reserved. Photographs © as per credits Published in 2022 by Human Development Forum www.humandevelopmentforum.org Human Development Forum

[ ] i Acknowledgements Compiled by Sean Nicklin and Ben Cornwell Edited by Alice Chambers, Stuart Fairbrother, Rebecca Gibson, Richard Humphreys, Toby Ingleton, Alex Smith and Elly Yates-Roberts Designed by Libby Sidebotham and Dhanika Vansia Printed in the UK by Gomer Press Ltd. With thanks to all the authors listed throughout the book for their support in compiling A Better World Volume 8 and for their continued efforts in working towards the achievement of Goal 13. African Development Bank Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics of the Republic of Indonesia Asia Pulp & Paper Sinar Mas Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research Coral Triangle Initiative — Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security CropLife International Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute Fundación Avina International Potato Center Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences LuxDev Paper Manufacturers Association of South Africa Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water

[ ] ii Contents Keeping the 1.5C hope alive............................................1 Sean Nicklin, Editor, A Better World Moving from rhetoric to action: African Development Bank’s leadership infinancing climate adaptation in Africa............................................4 Balgis Osman Elasha, James Kinyangi, Fekadu Shimelis, Sonia Borrini and Fadekunayo Adeniyi, African Development Bank China’s Xiamen City: building a Sponge City to cope with urban water problems resulting from climate change..................................................................9 Yanwei Wang, Ningpeng Dong and Chao Mei, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research Tackling causes and consequences of climate change through partnerships in Vietnam.....................12 Dr Alain Jacquemin, Chief Technical Adviser, and Baas Brimer, Environment and Climate Change Expert, LuxDev Accelerating Climate Action in Latin America.............15 Andrea Rodriguez Osuna, Climate Action Programme Regional Manager, and Virginia Scardamaglia, Climate Action Programme Consultant, Fundación Avina International joint research cooperation for building sustainable environmental systems................19 Keiichi Hayashi, Taro Izumi, Akihiko Kosugi, Tadashi Yoshihashi, Hiroyasu Oka, Toshihiko Anzai and Junya Onishi Japan, International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences Awarding scientific innovation in water research to respond to the uncertainties of climate change........23 Abdulmalek A Al Alshaikh, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water Building back better with compassionate food systems...................................................................26 Chien-Cheng Yang, Steve Chiu and Yee Siang Yong, Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation The small farmers large field collective action model — making smallholder farmers profitable and sustainable. .............................................................30 Sampriti Baruah and Samarendu Mohanty, International Potato Center

[ ] iii Contents Road to COP27: agricultural innovation and collaboration...........................................................34 Giulia Di Tommaso, President and CEO, CropLife International CTI-CFF: progress towards SDG 13 and COP26. ........38 Dr Mohd Kushairi Bin Mohd Rajuddin, Executive Director, Coral Triangle Initiative — Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security, The Regional Secretariat, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Sustained ocean observation for understanding climate change................................................................44 Ferdy Gustian Utama, BMKG Maritime Meteorological Station of Teluk Bayur Padang, Dava Amrina and Bayu Edo Pratama, Center of Marine Meteorology, Nelly Florida Riama, Center of Research and Development, Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics of the Republic of Indonesia (BMKG) Forest conservation is not just about carbon stocks — perspectives from forest ecology and field research .................................................................47 Tamotsu Sato, Director of the Department of Forest Vegetation, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute Steering corporate leadership and action by taking a multifaceted approach to protecting forests, building up communities and achieving a net-zero world by 2050...........................................................................50 Letchumi Achanah, Head of Strategic Engagement and Advocacy, Asia Pulp & Paper (APP) Sinar Mas Looking to the world’s oldest natural material for positive climate action...................................................53 Jane Molony, Executive Director, and Samantha Choles, Communications Manager, Paper Manufacturers Association of South Africa Climate change adaptation in the Pacific: can COP26 deliver solutions?...........................................................57 Espen Ronneberg, Director, Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability Administration Notes............................................................................62

[ ] 1 Cl imate Act ion Keeping the 1.5C hope alive Sean Nicklin, Editor, A Better World The last decade was the warmest recorded in history. Climate change is affecting the global community in every nation across the world. It impacts lives and livelihoods, especially of those in vulnerable conditions. Climate change continues to exacerbate the frequency of natural disasters, such as massive wildfires, droughts, hurr icanes and f loods. It has brought about greater weather extremes and rising sea levels, and the effects are felt worldwide. From 2000 to 2018, the greenhouse emissions of developed countries and economies in transition declined by 6.5 per cent. However, the emissions of developing countries rose 43 per cent in the period between 2000 and 2013. In 2019, at least 120 of 153 developing countries had undertaken activities to formulate and implement national adaptation plans. One result of the Covid-19 pandemic was that greenhouse gas emissions reduced, as lockdowns that were introduced to thwart the spread of the virus led to a massive fall in travel. But this was only short-term respite. As we emerge from the pandemic, we are returning to previous habits. Greater action is required to combat the devastating impacts of climate change. New technologies, increased financial investment and greater focus on sustainable development will help. The 17 interlinked Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. Established in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly, the SGDs are intended to be achieved by 2030. The official mission statement of SDG 13 is: “Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts”. There are five targets of this SDG, covering a range of issues surrounding climate action. The first three are ‘output’ targets: Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related disasters; integrate climate change measures into policies and planning; build knowledge and capacity to meet climate change. Climate change has brought about greater weather extremes and rising sea levels

[ ] 2 A Bet ter Wor ld The remaining two targets are ‘means of achieving’ targets: To implement the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, to promote mechanisms to raise capacity for planning and management. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. UNFCCC states that the annual Conference of the Parties (COP), serves two main purposes: To review the implementation of the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, respectively, and to adopt decisions to further develop and implement these three instruments. Specific objectives are also set for each COP. Prior to COP26, four goals that needed to be achieved were set out. These were: • Secure global net zero by mid-century and keep the 1.5C (above pre-industrial levels) target for temperatures within reach, by accelerating the phase-out of coal, curtailing deforestation, speeding up the switch to electric vehicles and encouraging investment in renewables. • Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats, by enabling and encouraging countries to protect and restore ecosystems, and building defences, warning systems and resilient infrastructure and agriculture to avoid loss of homes, livelihoods and even lives. Images: COP26 Speakers at COP26 in Glasgow included, clockwise from top, UN Secretary-General António Guterres, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson and HRH The Prince of Wales

[ ] 3 • Mobilize at least US$100 billion in climate finance per year by 2020. • Work together to deliver at COP26, by finalizing the Paris Rulebook and accelerating action to tackle the climate crisis through collaboration between governments, businesses and civil society. The COP26 international climate conference took place in Glasgow in late 2021. After 13 days of negotiations between nearly 200 countries, the Glasgow Climate Pact was signed, and the Paris Agreement’s Rulebook was completed. One real milestone moment of COP26 was a global agreement to phase down the use of unabated coal. The Glasgow Climate Pact is the first to explicitly mention coal, making it an ultimately successful outcome for the UK and other countries that have curtailed their use of coal. Developing nations were provided with assurances for greater access to climate financing for both mitigation and adaptation, including greater support beyond the US$100 billion annual funding currently promised. As this is only a fraction of the investment required for the climate crisis, combined with the fact that developed nations have failed to meet existing financing promises thus far, poor and vulnerable nations face an uncertain path to adaptation. Further, the failure of COP26 to secure a 1.5C world has left small island nations already facing the impacts of climate change understandably worried about their future existence. While historic commitments were made in COP26 to get to a 1.8C world, delivering on these commitments will require significant effort by countries, sectors and corporates. The overall outcome was a small but positive step in the right direction towards keeping the 1.5C hope alive. Cl imate Act ion Significant efforts are required across the world to keep temperatures within the target of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels Images: United Nations

[ ] 4 A Bet ter Wor ld Moving from rhetoric to action: African Development Bank’s leadership in financing climate adaptation in Africa Balgis Osman Elasha, James Kinyangi, Fekadu Shimelis, Sonia Borrini and Fadekunayo Adeniyi African Development Bank Africa is warming faster than the rest of the world. The surface temperature on the continent has increased more rapidly than the global average, and this is expected to continue in the future as well. The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s sixth assessment report found that climate change is causing an increase of mean temperatures and hot extremes, more frequent marine heat waves, and a faster rate of sealevel rise. At the same time, the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events are projected to increase almost everywhere in Africa. The Sahara, the Horn of Africa and Central Africa are projected to have heavier precipitation and corresponding increases in pluvial flooding, while the Southern and Eastern Africa are projected to experience higher tropical wind speeds and more Category 4-5 cyclones. Sea-level rises will continue, contributing to increases in the frequency and severity of coastal flooding and accelerated coastal erosion. This relatively higher exposure of Africa superimposed with the sensitivity of the economy, livelihoods, and infrastructures of the region and low adaptive capacity of its population means that Africa’s vulnerability to climate change will certainly and progressively continue impacting its progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. These impacts are felt economy-wide and estimates of the cost range between US$7 to US$15 billion per year. The cost of climate actions, as presented in the intended nationally determined contributions (NDCs) submitted by 53 African countries, is estimated at US$3.5 to US$4 trillion by 2030. Furthermore, the costs of adaptation for Africa are estimated to amount to US$35 billion by 2050 and could be as high as seven per cent of the continent’s GDP by 2100. Reactive and anticipatory adaptation measures will certainly entail substantial cost to Africa, though the cost of inaction is expected to be immense. AfDB’s leadership of Africa’s response to climate change African Development Bank (AfDB) holds a unique position as the leading pan-African development finance institution and as a trusted partner among the regional member countries, making it instrumental for Africa’s climate response. Its measures and initiatives to accelerate Africa’s transition to a resilient and green economy are broadly directed to upstream, midstream and downstream actions. AfDB launched its systematic response soon after the UN Rio+20 conference in 2012, issuing a 10-year strategy in which the green economy was embedded as one of two strategic objectives. Subsequently, AfDB issued a green growth framework to guide Bank-wide actions. It further consolidated its priorities into High 5 Agendas: Power Africa, Feed Africa, Industrialize Africa, Integrate Africa and improve the quality of life of every African. Through the implementation of the High 5 Agendas, AfDB is committed to supporting the climate actions of African countries. The Bank also created the Climate Change and Green Growth Department to spearhead its efforts on climate change and green growth. AfDB’s climate action over the last decade is guided by two medium-term climate action plans, the first and second Climate Change Action Plans (CCAP1 and 2), which covered objectives for 2011-2015 and 2016-2020, respectively. CCAP2 was predicated on four pillars and aimed to consolidate the Bank’s lead role in addressing climate change in Africa. The first pillar aims to boost adaptation and climate-resilient development in Africa by assisting regional member countries to effectively integrate adaptation into key economic sectors and help realize the adaptation aspirations set out in their NDCs, as well as to ensure a link with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. The second pillar aims to promote mitigation and low-carbon development in Africa. AfDB recognizes Africa’s minimal contribution to global emissions. Nevertheless, the Bank strongly believes that ensuring low-carbon trajectory through, among other things, maximizing investments in clean energy, sustainable management of natural resources, and deploying technological solutions, will ensure the long-term sustainability of economic and social progress of the region. The third pillar aims to scale up financing for climate action in regional member countries. AfDB is committed to allocate 40 per cent of its total annual approvals and various sources as climate finance by 2020 and to maintain the same post-2020. Cognizant of the critical role of adaptation in Africa, the Bank further set an objective of closing the

[ ] 5 Cl imate Act ion historical disparity between adaptation and mitigation. The fourth pillar aims to enhance that positive regulatory and policy environment which provides the context for climate actions and is widely acknowledged as being an instrumental precursor for action in Africa. Accordingly, AfDB has made efforts during the last decade to have an impact on the ground and create high impact systems and structures that will influence the ecosystem for green and resilient economy in the region. Notably, it has created the African NDC Hub, the African Financial Alliance on Climate Change, the Africa Energy Market Place, the Desert to Power Initiative, the Power Africa initiative, and the Green Bond Program. Moreover, the Bank continued forming partnerships, including with the Global Centre for Adaptation, Global Green Growth Institute and others. For example, the partnership with the Global Centre for Adaptation has resulted in the hosting of an African Regional office and the launching of a programme to accelerate adaptation action in Africa, which, among other goals, aims to mobilize US$12.5 billion by 2025, on top of the AfDB commitment to mobilize the same. AfDB also directed substantial resource to climate action. It has made US$24.3 billion of investment as climate finance during the last decade. Over the course of CCAP 2, for instance, the Bank has made US$12.3 billion in climate finance available, with an equal split between mitigation and adaptation, reversing the situation during CCAP 1. Notably, AfDB is the only multilateral development bank where adaptation finance has been exceeding mitigation finance since 2018. During the implementation of CCAP 2, the Bank has approved over 250 targeted investments, with climate finance accounting for 50-100 per cent of the approved amount. Over the same period, AfDB has approved an additional 250 projects and programmes with built-in climate actions. During the implementation of CCAP1, meanwhile, the Bank approved approximately 260 projects with climate-relevant components. Delivering on these commitments is primarily propelled by anchor flagship programmes, such as Climate-Smart Agriculture, the Desert to Power Initiative, Africa Disaster Risk Financing, the ClimDev Special Fund, and investment in the water sector, as well as the Bank’s Strategy for Addressing Fragility and Building Resilience. More importantly, AfDB adopted climate informed design for all projects approved by the bank, on top of committing targeted investment. Adaptation and resilience will continue to be a priority in major policy and investment decisions at AfDB. This is enshrined in the new climate change and green growth policy, strategy and action plan. Climate change is mainstreamed in all Bank operations to ensure climate resilience and lessen the need for interventions to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. The evidence suggests that due to this shift, the disparity between adaptation and mitigation finance was progressively closed from 36 per cent adaptation finance in 2016 to parity in 2018. Adaptation finance surpassed mitigation finance in 2018 and accounted for 63 per cent of climate finance in 2020. Moreover, the Bank’s adaptation finance was directed to climate actions in seven sectors, most significantly to agriculture (32 per cent) and water supply and sanitation (26 per cent), where the two sectors accounted for 58 per cent of the total adaptation finance for the period 2016-2020. During this period the Bank allocated climate finance of about US$1.903 billion to agriculture and US$1.574 billion to water and sanitation sectors. Some of the examples of adaptation projects in the agriculture and water sector include the Baixo Limpopo Irrigation and Climate Resilience Project in Mozambique; the Kandadji Ecosystems Regeneration and Niger Valley Development Programme in Niger; the Support Project for the Development of Value Chains in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector in Equatorial Guinea; the Water Valorization Adaptation vs mitigation finance (2016-2020) Source: African Development Bank Adaptation finance by sector (2016-2020) Source: African Development Bank Adaptation Mitigation US$ million 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 32% 5% 5% 12% 26% 16% 2% 2% Agriculture Energy-Power Environment Finance Multi-sector –PBO Social Transport Water S&S

[ ] 6 for Value Chain Development Project in Senegal; the Inclusive and Sustainable Development Program for Agricultural Sectors in Morocco; the Cabinda Province Agriculture Value Chains Development Project in Angola; Building Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition in Chad’s Rural Communities Programme; the Post Cyclone Idai and Kenneth Emergency Recovery and Resilience Programme for Mozambique, Malawi and Zimbabwe; the Muvumba Multipurpose Water Resources Development Program in Rwanda; the Cotonou Stormwater Drainage Programme in Benin; the Thwake Multi-Purpose Water Development Program in Kenya; and, the Rural Drinking Water Supply Programme in Tunisia. Furthermore, the AfDB’s approved adaptation finances is allocated to the climate actions in the river region and to regional programmes, 83 per cent of which are in subSaharan Africa, with West Africa and East Africa accounting for 56 per cent of all approved adaptation finance over the period of 2016-2020. This is clearly in line with the relatively higher climate change vulnerability observed in West and East Africa. While the Bank is a leader in terms of its emphasis on adaptation finance, the contribution to the overall climate finance is also remarkable. Overall, the Bank’s climate finance accounted for about 37 per cent of the 2019 reported climate finance from all multilateral development banks (MDBs). Key results from 2019 and 2020 One of the key results from climate adaptation financing was delivered through the Feed Africa operation completed in 2019 and 2020, which benefited about 36.7 million people, of whom 17.6 million are women, through improvements in agricultural productivity. Approximately 7,018 kilometres of feeder roads were built or rehabilitated, about 16,500 hectares of land were put under improved water management and around 100,000 people were enabled to use improved farming technologies. Operations completed in 2019 and 2020 have benefited 728,000 people, with new electricity connections delivering a 2.3-million-ton reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and providing access to reliable, affordable and modern energy services, which is envisaged to boost adaptive capacity of households and community through productive use. Climate adaptation action on the ground — the case of Mozambique Mozambique is ranked among the most vulnerable countries in Africa and is highly exposed to frequent extreme natural A Bet ter Wor ld Adaptation finance flow by regions from 2016 to 2020 Source: African Development Bank 24% 15% 12% 32% 15% 2% Pan-African Central Africa East Africa North Africa Southern Africa West Africa Climate finance flow to SSA from AfDB and other MDBs in 2019 4,675 63% AfDB All Other MDBs Source: African Development Bank 2,705 37% Sere Wind Farm, South Africa Image: ESKMOM

[ ] 7 Cl imate Act ion events such as heavy rain, f looding, tropical cyclones, droughts and landslides, increasing livelihood vulnerability due to low adaptive capacities. Between 2000 and 2019, the average climate-related economic loss in Mozambique is estimated at 13 per cent of total GDP, equivalent to US$46 million dollars. Furthermore, Mozambique lacks the appropriate physical and social climate resilience infrastructure and institutional capacity for disaster risk preparedness. By supporting the government of Mozambique in enhancing national climate resilience capacities in line with the country’s NDC, the Bank is actively engaged in investing in short-, medium-, and long-term climate resilience measures. Short-term investments include the Post Cyclone Idai and Kenneth Emergency Recovery and Resilience Program, through which AfDB has disbursed US$46.47 million in enhancing agricultural productivity and resilience, rehabilitating socio-economic infrastructure and strengthening the national institutional capacities in disaster risk reduction and management. Meanwhile, in order to enhance communities’ long-term climate and livelihoods resilience, AfDB has mobilized US$21.15 million through the Sustainable Land and Water Resource Management Project (SLWRMP) to help in promoting adaptation activities that improve watershed management and sustainable land management practices in drought-prone areas of the Gaza province. This includes US$15.9 million from the Climate Investment Fund Pilot Program Climate Resilience. The SLWRMP has provided enhanced irrigation infrastructures, market infrastructure for agro-processing and promoted farm diversification, and increased production and food security. It has also strengthened communities’ capacity to address interlinkage challenges for the adverse impact of climate change, rural poverty, food insecurity and land degradation. The project has improved the livelihoods of more than 59,000 people, 54 per cent of which are women, in Guijá, Mabalane, Chicualacuala, Mas-sagena and Mapa districts. Also in the Gaza province, AfDB has contributed through the Baixo Limpopo Irrigation and Climate Resilience Project (BLICRP) in Xai-Xai district to increased value addition for agricultural commodities while enhancing climate resilience infrastructure development such as an agroprocessing center, Magula pumping station and rural road rehabilitation. This represents a total estimated investment of US$44.08 million, including a US$15.98 million contribution from the Strategic Climate Fund — Pilot Program for Climate Resilience. The project has also contributed to build farmers capacities in adopting climate smart agricultural practices, positively impacting 8,000 smallholder farm families and 210 emergent farmers. It has also created a total of 115,752 jobs, with 52 per cent of direct beneficiaries being women. Meanwhile, in improving climate change governance in Mozambique and enable private sector participation in climate risk financing especially in drought-prone agroclimatic zone areas, the Bank is providing institutional technical assistance for the Government of Mozambique to develop a Climate Resilience Strategy and Drought Insurance Scheme in the arid and semi-arid zones of Mozambique. Lessons learned and looking forward The two consecutive climate action plans have brought about good progress towards the AfDB’s contribution to climate resilience and enhanced climate action in development interventions through sound climate mainstreaming. This means that the Bank has made significant progress on climate finance commitment, moving from nine per cent in 2016 to 35 per cent in 2019 and 34 per cent in 2020, reversing the historical disparity between climate adaptation and mitigation finance through deliberate efforts. This contrasts with Image: CIF Xina One Solar Project, South Africa

[ ] 8 global investment, in which less than 30 per cent of climate finance was allocated to adaptation in the same period. AfDB is also leveraging its resources to mobilize external climate finance from various sources of funding, including multilateral and bilateral funds. For instance, it mobilized US$360 million in 2018. The Bank can further exploit its resources to mobilize climate finance at scale, including fostering private sector participation. AfDB, guided by its new climate change and green growth policy, strategy and action plan, will consolidate its role in the regional enablers such as the Africa NDC Hub; Adaptation Benefit Mechanism, African Financial Alliance for Climate Change, and Africa Adaptation Acceleration Program to further propel climate action in the region. Despite the disruptive impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the global economy, business and operations, AfDB, through its Covid Response Facilities in regional member countries, was able to respond to the pandemic shocks and take the opportunity to enhance climate resilience. This includes mainstreaming climate change into the pandemic response packages, which accounted for 34 per cent of the 2020 annual approvals. Meanwhile, to sustain such responses and build back better, there is a need for adopting an integrated approach by supporting socioeconomic resilience and disaster response while building institutional capacities and promoting transformative change across the public, local communities and the private sector. Continuous engagement with regional member countries and continental bodies is an important element for achieving climate actions on the ground and leveraging on AfDB’s comparative advantage and footprint in the region and in countries. Images: AfDB The Baixo Limpopo Irrigation and Climate Resilience Project in Mozambique A Bet ter Wor ld

[ ] 9 Sponge City’s permeable pavements help reduce run-off Climate change is posing a significant impact on natural ecological systems and human society. Since the 1980s, the temperature of China’s mainland has been constantly increasing by 0.51C per decade, with some cities witnessing growing incidences of cloud bursts and local floods, posing huge pressures on the urban drainage system and therefore affecting the normal operation of cities. Building sponge cities would help mitigate such problems as water resources, water security, water environment and water ecology. Xiamen is one of the pilot cities for the Sponge City development in China. The so-called ‘Sponge City’ is a special Chinese concept for urban storm water management which has been piloted in 30 cities all over the country since it was officially put forward in 2013. The Sponge City development advocates the natural storage, infiltration and purification of storm water in the hope that cities could maximize the role of ecological systems for storm water regulation, in absorbing, storing, infiltrating and cleaning the storm water when it rains, release and reuse the water when needed. In this way, cities would have the capacity to cope with environmental changes and resilience to natural disasters, so that the risk of climate change could be mitigated with human proactive adaptation to water. Meanwhile, the green infrastructure and its role for storm water storage would help improve the carbon sinking of the urban ecological system and therefore contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitate carbon peaking and neutrality. According to the implementation plan for the Sponge City development of Xiamen, six types of projects are built respectively for the purposes of infiltration, retention, storage, purification, reuse, and drainage: • ‘Infiltration’ projects mainly refer to the construction or upgrade of green roofs, permeable pavement and natural ground with the aim to reduce run-off and clean up the initial rainwater pollution. • Projects for ‘retention’ refer to the bioswales and vegetative swales which could postpone the run-off peaking. • ‘Storage’ projects include the protection, restoration, renovation and use of rivers, lakes and wetlands for the collection, storage and regulation of storm water. The main function of such projects are to reduce peak flows to facilitate the later reuse of storm water. • ‘Purification’ projects mainly refer to the sewage treatment facilities and pipelines, river channel rectifications, gentle ecological slope protection and bay dredging, which are aimed to reduce the nonpoint source pollution and improve the urban water environment. • Projects for ‘reuse’ include sewage reuse facilities and storage ponds to mitigate water scarcity and to reduce emissions through water saving. Images: IWHR China’s Xiamen City: building a Sponge City to cope with urban water problems resulting from climate change Yanwei Wang, Ningpeng Dong and Chao Mei China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research Cl imate Act ion

[ ] 10 • ‘Drainage’ projects mainly refer to the pipeline renovation for rain-sewage shunting and the drainage improvement at low-lying areas in order to combine the role and effects of the vertical urban space, the artificial machines and facilities, the artificial drainage facilities, the natural river channels, the ground surface drainage and the underground pipelines and channels. A typical case for the application of the above-mentioned Sponge City practices is the residential community, Yangtang, in the Xiang’an district of Xiamen, in Fujian, China. Located in the downtown area of Xiang’an, the Yangtang residential community covers an area of 620,000 metres squared, in which diversified Sponge City measures and technologies are adopted in line with the specific situation of each location including pavements, architectures and landscapes. The roads and streets in the community are mostly permeable pavement with bioswales and vegetative swales of certain widths built along the pavement to jointly reduce the discharge and pollution of run-off. The buildings in the community are mostly built with green roofs and have drainage systems connected to rainwater gardens and rainwater collection facilities, which could not only reduce the rainwater discharge, but also mitigate initial rain pollution and store rainwater for reuse. A ‘rain fed creek garden’ is built nearby the community as the overall inlet of the local rainwater, contributing to the storm water retention and regulation, run-off purification and rainwater collection of the community. In the meantime, the park makes the landscape of the community more beautiful and habitable. Through the Sponge City development over the past years, the black and odorous water bodies in Xiamen city have been eliminated. Frequent waterlogging in seven locations has been resolved and the total water area of the city has been increased from 3.12 kilometres squared to 4.29 kilometres squared, with an annual storm water reuse volume totalling 1,763,300 tons. The specific goals for the Sponge City development have been achieved, namely no waterlogging from small rainfall, no flooding in heavy rains, no black and odorous water bodies, and the urban heat island effect eased. To further promote the Sponge City development and reasonably evaluate its social effect, the research team of IWHR carried out a survey in the case study city to understand local awareness about the pilot project and people’s opinions on the effects of the project. The survey showed that 73.46 per cent of citizens are very supportive of the Sponge City development. They are fully aware that there might be some inconvenience during the construction period but they still hope that the Sponge City measures could help improve their living environment through waterlogging treatment, waterbody purification and landscaping works. The positive response from the majority of the local people proves to a certain degree that the concept of Sponge City development has been widely accepted and recognized by urban residents, which is mostly due to people’s demand for high quality eco-environment nowadays. Many citizens say that with the overall improvement of people’s day-to-day life, living environment and water resources become more important to them and they wish to live in a beautiful environment with clear water and blue sky which gives them more sense of happiness. The Sponge City development is the key way to improve the eco-environment in urban areas. Through the relevant reconstruction and upgrade, the pilot community now has cleaner water and a better environment without waterlogging, giving people a happier life. The media reports and project evaluation of the government in recent years also show a remarkable effect of the Sponge City development in Xiamen. In particular, there have been no extreme urban flooding events from a series of heavy rains over the past years, demonstrating an increase in disaster resilience and the carbon sinking capacity of the city. This shows an increasing ecological and social benefit, providing the residents with a growing sense of achievement and happiness. The project also accumulates a great deal of experience in terms of run-off control, pollution mitigation and storm water reuse. Against the backdrop of global climate changes and rapid urbanization, Xiamen has taken Sponge City development as the major measure to cope with the varying environment, to solve the climate-change-induced urban water problems in an integrated way. The achievements of this case show us a new solution to water problems such as urban flooding, Green roofs and rainwater collection tanks, which store water for reuse Images: IWHR A Bet ter Wor ld

[ ] 11 environment pollution and water scarcity, and also provide us with some important enlightenments upon climate change mitigation for other cities in the world. Enlightenment I: urban water resilience It is necessary to improve the urban water resilience against climate change on multiple levels. An individual city is incapable of reversing the effects of climate change, or of completely eliminating its potential impact. Therefore, efforts should be focused on mitigation, adaptation and regulation measures, and the key is to improve the climate resilience of urban water from multiple levels and perspectives for which the Sponge City development is just the right way to do so. In the pilot city of Xiamen, diversified sponge measures are adopted for the lakes, landscapes, pavements and residential communities to constitute an integrated sponge system with the comprehensive functions of storm water storage, regulation and slow release, providing the city with the features of a sponge that can store water in flood and release in drought. Such sponge features exemplify the so-called resilience with which the urban water would have a higher threshold value and lower fragility to climate change. The cities would therefore have a better capacity to achieve the sustainable use and development of water resources. Enlightenment II: urban development The Sponge City concept should be integrated into the whole process of urban development. The case study project here is just a pilot, but the Sponge City development is by nature an integrated concept of urban water resolution and a mode of urban development. The essence of such mode is a lowimpact, adaptive, nature-based, and integrated approach of urban development. Therefore, sponge measures in certain project construction or real estate development is not enough. The concept should be integrated into the whole process of urban development from planning to designing, construction, operation, management and further expansion. During this process, the human interference shall be minimized and nature-based solutions and ‘quasi natural designs’ should be adopted in most possible occasions. The Sponge City concept should be deeply implanted in citizens’ minds and become the natural behaviour of residents and city managers. With such a concept embedded in all the aspects and processes of urban construction and development, the urban space will be harmoniously shared by humans and rainwater, nature and society. A city that is able to achieve the rainwater storage, infiltration and purification in a nature-based way just like the sponge could be established. The rain-fed creek and rainwater garden in the park Image: Xiamen Daily, 2019 January The coastline of Xiamen Images: IWHR Cl imate Act ion

[ ] 12 Tackling causes and consequences of climate change through partnerships in Vietnam Dr Alain Jacquemin, Chief Technical Adviser, and Baas Brimer, Environment and Climate Change Expert LuxDev With its long coastline and high population densities, Vietnam is recognized by the World Bank as one of the countries most exposed to detrimental climate change effects, particularly in terms of the rise in sea levels, saline intrusion, loss of land and property, changing ecosystems and food insecurity. In Thua Thien Hue (TT Hue) province in central Vietnam, a collaborative effort that began in 2013 is helping communities to build resilience and better cope with the impacts of — and changing conditions caused by — climate change. TT Hue in Vietnam’s north-central region is home to 1.13 million people, as well as Southeast Asia’s largest lagoon, measuring 220 square kilometres. The province is prone to climate-related hazards, including storms, floods, droughts, coastal and river erosion, and salinization of the soil and lagoon water. These hazards are increasing in frequency and intensity, leading to ever greater risks and impacts on people’s lives and livelihoods. Government data has found that over the last 21 years 572 people in the province lost their lives due to weather events, and the economic cost of climate-related impacts is rising exponentially. Perhaps the most visible impact of climate change in TT Hue is the level and speed of erosion of the province’s beaches and dunes. In various coastal communes, local leaders have reported a loss of 500 metres of inhabited land in the last 10 to 15 years, forcing communities to vacate their ancestral lands. The Vietnamese government’s current policies, strategies and plans on climate change and green growth reflect its awareness of climate threats to livelihoods, assets and ecosystems. These also support the country’s role as a strong international ally and climate advocate, and an early signatory to major international climate agreements, including, most recently, a commitment at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference to become a net-zero emissions economy by 2050. In his speech to the conference, however, Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh reminded the world that in order to do so quickly and effectively, and to help people in countries like Vietnam to become more resilient and able to cope better, much international support will be needed. TT Hue is one example of how direct international climate cooperation at the subnational level can work effectively and create meaningful impact. In 2013, TT Hue initiated a partnership with the government of Luxembourg to collaborate on the causes and consequences of climate change. That partnership has been divided into three sections, with two focusing on adaptation, and one on mitigation. The partnership is supported by the Luxembourg Development Cooperation Agency (LuxDev) and, since 2018, has been Sea level rise, recurrent floods and storms are contributing to coastal erosion, with communes rapidly losing land and assets to the ocean, like here in Tan Thanh village, Quang Cong commune Specially designed dykes offer shelter for up to 100 fishing boats from damage during floods and typhoons, hence protecting local fishing folks’ main economic assets and securing their livelihood Image: LuxDev Image: LuxDev A Bet ter Wor ld

[ ] 13 funded directly by the Climate and Energy Fund, as Luxembourg’s first international climate investment. Luxembourg technical support is working directly with and within the provincial government’s planning department, in close collaboration with all relevant provincial, district and city government agencies, mass organisations and communities, professional associations, and the private sector. That institutional setup has been a key driver of the effectiveness of the investments and interventions, as it led to full harmonization and alignment with government policies and plans and allowed for guidance and steering from within. Further, strong community participation in planning, implementation and monitoring of the interventions and a specific focus on women and girls, for example through work and gender action plans in collaboration with the Women’s Union, have been other drivers of success, as they led to strong ownership and sustainability, and a clear gender perspective. Luxembourg’s support to TT Hue in climate change mitigation took the form of a pilot project in energy efficiency, with the aim of reducing carbon dioxide emissions and mitigating global warming. That support consists of three intervention areas, in hardware, software, and one related to measurements applying United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) standards. Following cost-benefit analyses of various kinds of energy efficiency interventions, high-energy conventional lighting was replaced with lowenergy LED lighting in 54 schools and on 18 roads in Hue City. The partnership also launched a range of information, education and communication initiatives to increase people’s understanding of the causal relationship between energy use, global warming and climate change, and to accelerate the transition to sustainable energy sources in a country where most electricity is generated by fossil fuel power plants. Further, Luxembourg and TT Hue government agencies also engaged in pioneering work to develop systems and strengthen government capabilities to measure, report and verify the impact of mitigation interventions in terms of carbon dioxide emission reductions. This is critical work as that carbon dioxide reduction, measured in line with UNFCCC guidelines and requirements, is to be registered as a (first) formal contribution to Vietnam’s international global warming commitments, as well as its longer-term net zero goal. Luxembourg’s current support to TT Hue — in helping people and authorities adapt to the consequences of climate change — has taken a wide-scoped, comprehensive approach that focuses on resilience to climate vulnerabilities and securing the livelihoods of over 300,000 people. Small-scale infrastructure proposals by communities have been assessed and selected based on objective criteria and technical data. The 94 projects that have been developed so far have provided greater protection to around 35,000 households and their productive assets. These include: boat shelters, to protect fishermen’s main assets from damage caused by heavy storms; river embankments, drainage pumps and canals, to better protect and manage the impact of frequent major floods; the enhancement of nursery facilities to function as emergency shelters during major weather events; and bridges and sluices, to prevent the further salinisation of paddy fields, which is a major and growing problem in many parts of Vietnam. Raising awareness and developing skills have been key to Luxembourg’s support to TT Hue, in helping people and local Protecting and restoring a critical ecosystem For over eight years, the climate partnership in TT Hue has helped organize and strengthen fishery associations (FAs) in localities in and around the Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon. These professional associations were set up to improve the understanding and skills of fishermen and aquaculture farmers, to ultimately increase the protection and restoration of the lagoon as a vital natural resource and ecosystem that supports thousands of households. Following the revision of the Law of Fisheries in 2017 and with the collaborative efforts of LuxDev and the TT Hue Sub-Department of Fisheries, FA members were educated in relevant legal matters and drafted their own local regulations to prevent over-exploitation of the lagoon and prevent further damage to its ecosystem. They were also taught how to farm newly introduced climate-resilient varieties, and were given materials, such as concrete poles to demarcate fishing zones, patrol boats to ensure compliance with local rules on the lagoon’s waters, and young fish to nurture in protected zones. As a result, Fisheries Conservation Zones in TT Hue are now better managed, Aquatic Resource Conservation Zones are restructured in line with the revised Law on Fisheries, regular water-testing indicates a significant improvement in water quality, there is evidence of a gradual restoration of the lagoon ecosystem, and fishermen and aquaculture farmers feel more confident that current regulations will help to ensure long-term sustainable livelihoods. Images: LuxDev Cl imate Act ion

[ ] 14 authorities to better understand climate change, how it manifests itself, what can be expected going forward, what people can do to mitigate the associated risks and how they can adapt to the rapid changes caused by it. For example, local authorities have been provided with a range of disaster risk reduction capacity interventions as well as material support in early warning systems and equipment for emergency and rescue teams. Teachers and students in rural primary and secondary schools have been enthusiastic participants in a range of extracurricular teaching and action-oriented practical activities (see ‘Children in focus’). And as for productive activities and livelihoods, adaptation interventions have primarily focused on protecting natural resources and restoring vital ecosystems. For example, project partners have worked with the fishery associations (FAs) in and around the Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon for many years, with some exceptional results (see ‘Protecting and restoring a critical ecosystem’). Since 2018, partners have also been working on a plan to establish an organic agriculture value chain, as a new growth industry for the province and the region. This is in response to an urgent need to protect natural resources, primarily soils and water resources, from the ever-increasing use and misuse of chemicals in all sub-sectors of agriculture, as well as to the rapidly increasing demand of safe and healthy food from the Vietnamese public. The partnership and its various projects have led to some unusual results. An external evaluation of the adaptation project scored the intervention in the highest quintile on all evaluation criteria from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. A randomized control trial (RCT) comparing project areas with similarly vulnerable non-project areas in another district, before and after interventions and over a five-year timeframe, found major differences in household incomes, as well as in coping capacity and damage in times of serious weather events.1 Some of the outcomes of the partnership have been classified by external evaluators as ‘power results’ — outcomes that go beyond what would normally be expected in any best-case scenario. An example is the revised Law on Fisheries passed in the National Assembly in 2017, which now holds the FAs responsible for the co-management of aquatic resources and activities (see ‘Protecting and restoring a critical ecosystem’). The Luxembourg-TT Hue climate partnership continues to this day, and larger interventions to be supported by international climate finance are being prepared. It has demonstrated what can be achieved in a relatively short time and shown that alignment with local policies and strategies, institutional set-up and support, and community-driven approaches are critical for sustainability in the long run. While there are likely major challenges for TT Hue and similar coastal provinces in Vietnam still to come, many early lessons can be learned from the province and applied elsewhere, to prepare, protect and support communities facing an uncertain future. Children in focus The burden of climate change is not spread equally, and some people are more vulnerable to its impacts than others. Children from poorer households are particularly affected, which is why the collaborative climate interventions in TT Hue have addressed their specific vulnerabilities and needs. Since 2013, in collaboration with the Vietnamese Department of Education, students at district schools participated in climate change and disaster risk reduction training, as well as extracurricular environmental classes. In primary schools, climate change painting competitions were organized, and thousands of children participated in swimming lessons to receive their basic certificates. This is particularly important as floods have become more frequent and severe in recent years, and drowning is the most common cause of death for children under 14 years old. In secondary schools, many climate change contests have been organized and 17 student action groups were formed to encourage sustainable initiatives in school communities. In Hue City, where conventional lighting in 54 schools was replaced with LED lighting, hundreds of science teachers received training on the role of energy efficiency in climate change. In addition, 33 student energy efficiency action groups were established to accelerate changes in behaviour to reduce energy use and the associated costs. It is very encouraging to see how positively young people in Vietnam have responded to learning about climate change. It also brings new hope, as they are not only the generation to take the burden of climate change, but they are also the ones that will soon be able to do something about it. Images: LuxDev A Bet ter Wor ld